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Hermetic Timeline

(Last Updated 4 May 2011)
 
 


Hermetic Timeline


Hint For Use:

The Timeline is arranged "horizontally," which is good for showing concurrency, but it is complicated and distracting.

It is useful to be able to follow the Timeline "vertically" as well.

In your browser, hit CTRL-F (or choose Edit -> Find). In the box that appears, type the name of the person you are currently interested in.

In Internet Explorer 8, this will take you to the first occurrence. But if you scroll down, you will see that all subsequent occurrences of the name are highlighted. This makes it very easy to see all the events related to that person, without getting distracted by everyone else.

Of course, it doesn't have to be a name. For example, typing "Rosicru" in the box will highlight all entries for Rosicrucian in the Timeline.

In Firefox, you will be taken to the first occurrence, but unfortunately the subsequent occurrences are not highlighted like they are in IE 8. But at least you can use the Next button on the Search bar to jump to the next incident in the life you are following.


c. 120  Probable date of writing of Sepher Yetzirah
c. 200  Most (or all) of the Corpus Hermeticum written by this time
c. 260   Gallienus recognizes Christianity as a lawful religion
311  Arius becomes a presbyter of Alexandria
325  Council of Nicea, presided over by Constantine, who was not a Christian at this point. Arianism declared a heresy. Bishops of the See of Rome, founded by St. Peter; Alexandria, founded by St. Mark; and Antioch, sometime residency of St. Mark; recognized as heads of the Hierarchy of the Church
336  Death of Arius
354  Birth of St. Augustine
382  Damasus I comissions St. Jerome to translate scriptures into Latin
405  St. Jerome completes the Vulgate
410  Sack of Rome by the Visigoths. Since they are Arian Christians, they spare all Christian edifices. Pantheon was a Christian church by this time
411  Cyril becomes Patriarch of Alexandria. Library sacked
415  Hypatia killed by Christian mob
425  Death of Proclus, head of the Platonic Academy of Athens
428  Nestorius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople
430  Death of St. Augustine
431  Council of Ephesus. Nestorianism declared a heresy
451  Council of Chalcedon. Monophysitism declared a heresy
476  Fall of Rome
507  Clovis I, founder of the Merovingian line, invades the Visigothic kingdom which would become Septimania and drives them from their capital at Narbonne
529  Justinian shuts down the Platonic Academy at Athens
570  Birth of Mohammed
600  Sepher Yetzirah definitely written before this time
632  Death of Mohammed
711  Moors overrun the Visigothic kingdom south of the Pyrenees
719  Moorish invasion of southern France begins
720  Septimania controlled by Moors. It becomes an autonomous principality with capital at Narbonne
732  Battle of Poitiers, at which Charles Martel checks the advance of the Moorish hordes
737  Pepin the short attempts to take Narbonne, but it is successfully defended by its Gothic and Jewish population, let by its governor Yusuf
738  Charles Martel drives the Moorish invaders back to Narbonne, which, defended by both Moors and Jews, proves impregnable
747  Aumar ben Aumar becomes governor of Narbonne
752  Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, brings Septimania under his control. Narbonne, however, still holds out for another seven years
754  Pepin the Short aids Pope Stephen II against the Longobards in Italy. Appearance of the forged "Donation of Constantine," which asserts that the "Bishop of Rome" is the "Vicar of Christ," and has the status of Roman Emperor. After this point, the Pope wields supreme authority over both the spiritual and secular affairs of Western Christendom. Ceremonies of coronation and annointment devised. Pepin the Short crowned and annointed by the Pope at Ponthion, and becomes the first "created" King
759  Fall of Narbonne to the Franks. [Note: I find what follows to be extremely suspect -T.H.] Pepin the Short makes pact with the Jewish population of Narbonne, under siege since 752, whereby they endorse his claim to the biblical succession, by which he hoped to legitimize his claim to the Merovingian lands he had usurped. In return, he would ensure the independence or at least autonomy of the Jews, and recognize a Jewish King of Septimania. Jewish population of Narbonne slaughers Moorish defenders and opens gates to Pepin's army
768  Principality of Septimania created, with nominal alliegance to Pepin. Theodoric, of Merovingian descent, becomes King of Septimania. The device on his shield is the Lion of Judah. He is recognized by both Pepin and the Caliph of Baghdad as "the seed of the royal house of David" and King of the Jews. He marries Pepin's sister, Alda. [Note: I find the preceding claims to be extremely suspect -T.H.] Death of Pepin the Short. Accession of Charlemagne as King of Neustria and Austrasia. Letter from Pope Stephen III to the Sons of Pepin, which expresses "distress unto the point of death" over the grant of (especially Church) lands to the Jewish Kingdom. He states that since it was all right for God to break ancient spiritual promises to the Jews because of the Crucifixion of Jesus, it was a much lesser issue for Kings to break promises to Jews over temporal matters
771  Charlemagne becomes King of all the Franks
778  Charlemagne leads an expedition across the Pyrenees to harass the Moors. Roland, of the Chanson de Roland, accompanies him
792  Guilhem de Gellone, son of Theodoric, founds Caballistic academy and library at Gellone
800  Charlemagne, crowned and annointed Holy Roman Emperor on Dec. 25. End of the Dark Ages, beginning of the Middle Ages
803  Guilhem de Gellone captures Barcelona, thus extending the Kingdom of Septimania to straddle the Pyrenees. Kingdom of Septimania confirmed by Charlemagne as a permanent institution
806  Guilhem of Gellone retires to academy of Gellone
812  Death of Guilhem de Gellone, King of Septimania
814  Death of Guilhem de Gellone, King of Septimania
830  Al-Ma'mun, son of Haroun al-Raschid, passes through Harran on his way to a war at Constantinople. He threatens the pagan inhabitants of Harran with extinction if they don't convert to one of the accepted religions. They decide to call themselves "Sabians," and adopt the writings of Hermes Trismegistus as their "Scripture."
835  Birth of Thabit ibn Qurra, founder of the community of Sabians at Baghdad
862  John Scotus Eriugena translates Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite into Latin
872  Thabit goes to Baghdad
c. 901  Death of Thabit ibn Qurra
949  Birth of St. Symeon the New Theologian, monk of Mt. Athos who claimed to have seen divine light on a regular basis and was a great influence on the Hesychasts
961  St. Athanasius the Athonite begins building monasteries on Mt. Athos
c. 1000  Psellos starts a Hermetic revival in Constantinople. His copy of the Corpus Hermeticum is translated by Ficino 450 years later. Death of St. Athanasius the Athonite
1022  Death of St. Symeon the New Theologian
1034  Birth of Hassan-i-Sabbah, "The Old Man Of The Mountain," founder of the Hashishim
1037  Death of Avicenna at Hamadan, Persia
c. 1050  Order of Knights Hospitaller of St. John of Jerusalem founded by a group of religious laymen from Amalfi, Italy
1054  East-West Schism between the Roman and Byzantine Churches
1071  Jerusalem falls to the Seljuk Turks
1087  Peter Gerard or Gerard the Blessed becomes Abbot-Master of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem
1090  Hasssan-i-Sabbah seizes fortress of Alamut in Persia
1091  Birth of St. Bernard of Clairvaux
1094  Hassan-i-Sabbah breaks with Fatimid Caliphate
1095  Peter the Hermit and Pope Urban II preach the need for a crusade throughout Europe. Urban holds a synod at Piacenza, and then gives a famous speech at Clermont, France, which Peter attends. Peter inspires the Paupers' Crusade. He claims that Jesus appeared to him in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
1096  First Crusade begins. Peter the Hermit leads one of the five sections of the paupers to Constantinople. All his followers killed in Asia Minor. He returns to Constantinople
1098  Holy Lance discovered at Antioch by Peter Bartholomew. Jerusalem falls to the Fatimid Caliph of Cairo
1099  Jerusalem falls to the Crusaders on July 15. Entire native population of Jerusalem slaughtered by the Crusaders under Godfroi de Bouillon. Church of the Holy Sepulchre captured. Godfroi de Bouillon refuses the Kingship, but becomes "Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre."
1100  Death of Godfroi de Bouillon. Kingdom of Jerusalem begins on Christmas Day with the crowning of Baudoin de Bouillon, Godfroi's brother
1113  Pascal II issues a Bull sanctioning the constitution of the Knights Hospitaller
1118  Foundation of the Knights Templar in Jerusalem
1120  Count Fulk V of Anjou, later King of Jerusalem and father of Geoffrey Plantagenet, joins the Knights Templar
1128  St. Bernard writes In Praise of the New Knighthood advocating the Knights Templar. Knights Templar chartered and fully recognized as a religious-military body with Hugh de Payns as first Grand Master
1131  Fulk of Anjou becomes King of Jerusalem
1136  First recorded grant of land to the Knights Templar, by Matilda of Boulogne, Queen of England and great-niece of Baudoin I. Death of Hugh de Payns
1139  Bull issued by Innocent II, protege of St. Bernard, freeing Knights Templar from alliegance to all other temporal authorities than the Pope himself, thereby making them an autonomous international "superkingdom"
1143  Death of King Fulk of Jerusalem. Accession of first native-born King, Baudoin III, to the throne of Jerusalem. Peter, Venerable of Cluny, condemns to Louis VII the Jews of Narbonne, who claim to have a King residing there. Death of Byzantine Emperor John Comnenus
1144  Theobald, Bishop of Cambridge refers to "the seed of David residing at Narbonne"
1145  Eugenius III, disciple of St. Bernard, elected Pope. He issues two bulls advocating the Templars
1146  Templars granted the right to wear the cross pattée by Eugenius III
1149  First Cathar bishopric founded
1153  Death of St. Bernard
1161  London Order of the Temple moves to New Temple, between Fleet Street and the Thames
c. 1165  Forged letter from Prester John spreads through Europe
1173  Canonization of St. Bernard
1177  Pope Alexander III sends a letter to Prester John
1184  William of Tyre begins his history, which has come to be the standard historian's reference on the Knights Templar
1187  Disastrous battle of Hattin. Jerusalem falls to Saladin. Saladin allows the Knights Hospitaller to stay an extra year to finish their curing of the sick
1192  Richard the Lionheart sells Cyprus to the Knights Templar, who in turn sell it to Guy de Lusignan. He becomes King
1198  Foundation of the Teutonic Knights at Acre
c. 1200  Sepher-ha-Bahir written in southern France, perhaps by Isaac the Blind
1209  Beginning of the Albigensian Crusade
1229  Teutonic Knights begin conquest of Prussia
1232  Birth of Ramon Llull ("Dr. Illuminatus"), first Christian Cabalist writer
1233  Holy Inquisition founded by the Dominicans
1234  Teutonic Knights become independent of all authority except the Pope, like the Templars
1241  Alexander Nevsky defeats the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of the Ice
1243  Siege of Montségur
1244  End of the Albigensian Crusade
1245  Thomas Aquinas goes to Paris and becomes the student of Albertus Magnus
1248  Albertus Magnus sent to Cologne to teach. Thomas Aquinas goes with him
1259  Maltese cross granted exclusively to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Hospitallers) by Bull of Pope Alexander IV
1265  Llull joins the Franciscan order
1275  Moses de Leon composes and compiles Sepher-ha-Zohar
1283  Llull writes Blanquerna, the first Catalan novel, perhaps the first novel
1285  Llull goes to Tunis. He escapes from a mob there
1286  Llull meets with Philip IV at Paris
1288  Llull visits Nicholas IV at Rome
1291  Fall of Acre to the Muslims. Knights of St. John expelled from Jerusalem. They go to Cyprus. Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights retreats to Venice
1292  Llull goes to Tunis. He escapes from a mob there and goes to Naples
1296  Birth of St. Gregory Palamas, monk of Mt. Athos and Hesychast leader who claimed he could see the Light of God
1299  James II of Aragon gives Llull permission to preach in synagogues and mosques
1301  Llull visits Cyprus and Armenia
1302  Llull returns to Mallorca, probably via Rhodes and Malta
1305  Llull meets with Clement V at Lyons
1306  Duns Scotus meets Llull at Paris
1307  On Friday, October 13, all seneschals of France open secret sealed orders at dawn. Hundreds of Templars are arrested and imprisoned. Teutonic Knights accused of heresy by Bishop of Riga. Mt. Athos sacked by Spanish mercenaries. Ninety percent of its monasteries destroyed. Llull goes to Bougia in Africa, where he is imprisoned for six months. He sets out for Genoa, buy is shipwrecked off the coast of Pisa
1309  Llull meets with Clement V at Avignon
1310  Hundreds of Templars burned on the orders of Philip IV and Archbishop Marigny. Knights of St. John (Hospitallers) move from Cyprus to Rhodes where they can be in charge. They become commonly known as the "Knights of Rhodes." Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights transfers his seat to Marienburg on the Vistula. Philip IV meets with Llull and gives him a letter of commendation
1311  Llull at Council of Vienne
1312  Suppression of the Knights Templar by Clement V, who is reluctant and has been dragging his feet for years on the matter. Order of St. John of Jerusalem receives all their vast holdings. Llull founds school on Mallorca
1314  Jacques de Molay, last Templar Grand Master, roasted over a slow fire in Paris. French and Scottish Templars fight at the side of Robert the Bruce at Battle of Bannockburn. Llull goes to Bougia, then to Tunis
1315  Death of Ramon Llull, probably at Palma, perhaps after being stoned by a mob at Bougia
1317  John XXII issues decretal against the practice of alchemy
1337  Orhan I, son of Osman I, establishes capital at Bursa, starting what would become the Ottoman Empire
1339  Hesychast controversy begins at Constantinople
1348  Black Plague ravages Europe
1351  Boccaccio completes Decameron. Hesychasm made a doctrine of the Eastern Orthodox Church
1354  Gallipoli falls to the Ottoman Turks, giving them their first foothold in Europe. Cola di Rienzi fails to restore the Roman Republic
c. 1358  Birth of George Gemistos Plethon
1359  Death of St. Gregory Palamas
1360  First professorship of Greek established at Florence under the influence of Petrarch and Boccaccio
1368  Hesychasm confirmed as dogma of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Gregory Palamas canonized
1387  Manuel Chrysolorus begins a three-year stint teaching Greek at the University of Florence. Bruni is his pupil
1389  Birth of Cosimo de' Medici
1391  First siege of Constantinople by the Turks
1401  Birth of Nicholas of Cusa
1408  Birth of Bessarion at Trebizond
1410  Defeat of the Teutonic Knights by Ladislaus at Tannenberg
c. 1415  Birth of John Argyropoulos. Birth of George Ripley
1424  Antilia first appears, on the nautical chart of the Venetian Pizzigano
1425  Antilia appears on a map now in the Library of Weimar that may be the first attempt to represent the New World
1426  Antilia appears on the Venetian Andrea Bianco's map, and most maps made after this time
1429  Brunelleschi begins the building of the dome of the Florentine Cathedral
1431  Council of Basle convenes. Cardinal Cesarini appointed President of the Council by Eugenius IV. Bessarion goes to study for five years under Plethon
1433  Birth of Marsilio Ficino at Figline near Florence
1434  John Argyropoulos teaching at university in Padua. Eugenius IV driven out of Rome by a mob. He seeks refuge in Florence
1435  Council of Basle issues decree inviting the Greeks to Basle to remove their heresy
1436  Bessarion recalled to Constantinople, where he heads Monastery of St. Basil. Council of Basle splits
1437  The minority after the split of the Council of Basle, "the healthier part," votes to invite the Greeks to Florence. A delegation led by Nicholas of Cusa goes to Constantinople to invite them. Council of Basle majority members send a party to insist on Basle as the location for the Council, but they arrive in Venice after the delegation has already embarked, on the Papal fleet, to the accompaniment of an earthquake. Bessarion ordained and consecrated Bishop, although he is underage by regulation for the office
1438  Cardinal Cesarini defects from the the Council of Basle to the Pope's party. He goes to Ferrara. Council of Ferrara begins. Cardinal Cesarini is chief spokesman for the Latin side. Nicholas of Cusa remains to report to the Pope. He brings back from Constantinople a manuscript of Proclus's Platonic Theology which he gives in Ferrara to Ambrose Traversari, student of Manuel Chrysolorus, for translation. Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini of Siena, the future Pope Paul II, attends a dinner in Ferrara and meets Plethon and debates Plato and Aristotle with him
1439  Majority party of Council of Basle elects anti-Pope Felix V. Pope Eugenius IV declares the Council of Basle to be dissolved. Cosimo de' Medici invites the Council of Union to Florence, which he says can easily defray the cost. The Greeks are welcomed with a speech in their own language by Leonardo Bruni, student of Manuel Chrysolorus. Eugenius IV (still in exile from Rome) and Emperor John Paleologus instigate a new reunion of the Eastern and Roman Churches, which is opposed by most of the Greeks, including Plethon. John Argyropoulos and Bessarion in attendance. Plethon spends most of his time lecturing on Plato to laymen. Cosimo attends eagerly. Cosimo begins to send his agents to many countries looking for ancient manuscripts
1440  Lorenzo Valla exposes the fraudulent nature of the Donation of Constantine, the keystone of the Papal claim to temporal sovereignty. Eugenius IV (still in exile from Rome) creates Bessarion, disciple of Plethon, a cardinal of the Roman church. John de Lastic, Grand Master of the Hospitallers, repels an invasion of Rhodes from Egypt
1441  John Argyropoulos returns to Constantinople. Bessarion takes up residence in Rome and assumes a Cardinal's hat
1442  End of Council of Florence
1444  John de Lastic repels another invasion of Rhodes from Egypt. Cosimo de' Medici founds first public library in Florence. Delegation arrives in Constantinople from Italy to enforce the decree of Union signed in Florence in 1439. Death of Brunelleschi
c. 1448  Nicholas of Cusa becomes a Cardinal
1449  Anti-Pope Felix V resigns. Actual dissolution of the Council of Basle. Birth of Lorenzo "Il Magnifico" de' Medici
1450  Bessarion becomes Papal legate to (or is made governor of) Bologna
1452  Death of Geroge Gemistos Plethon. Scholarios (a.k.a. Gennadios) burns Plethon's Book of Laws. By this time, Marsilio Ficino has become interested in Platonism
1453  Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks
1454  Teutonic Knights cede Prussia to the King of Poland. Ficino writes his first philosophical works
1455  John Argyropoulos goes to Florence at the invitation of Cosimo de' Medici. Pope Nicholas V dies. Bessarion almost elected to replace him, but is denied because of his Greek birth. Calixtus III finally elected. Bessarion leaves Bologna. Birth of Johann Reuchlin at Pforzheim, Wurttemberg
1456  John Argyropoulos reaches Florence from Constantinople at invitation from Cosimo de' Medici. He becomes a lecturer at the Florentine Studio. Around this time Ficino begins to study Greek. Bessarion in Naples. Gutenberg prints the Vulgate at Mainz
1459  Marsilio Ficino becomes pupil of Greek instructor John Argyropoulos. Bessarion completes In Calumniatorem Platonis, against George of Trebizond. Bessarion campaigns in Italy for the expulsion of the Turks from Constantinople. Papal letter authorizes George Ripley to leave St. Mary’s Priory at Bridlington in Yorkshire and study abroad
1460  An agent of Cosimo, Leonardo da Pistoia, brings a manuscript, originally belonging to Psellos, of the Corpus Hermeticum to Florence from Macedonia. Bessarion in possession of a manuscript (not Psellos's) of the Corpus Hermeticum. Bessarion made Papal legate to Germany. He campaigns in Germany and Vienna for expulsion of the Turks
1461  Bessarion leaves Germany
1462  Cosimo gives Marsilio Ficino a villa at Careggi near Florence. Probable date of the founding of the Platonic Academy of Florence. Ficino translates the Orphic Hymns and begins singing them. He also translates the Sayings of Zoroaster. Birth of Johannes Trithemius at Trittenheim
1463  Cosimo de' Medici commands Ficino to put aside the Platonic manuscripts and translate the Corpus Hermeticum first. Ficino completes the translation, which becomes his most-published work. Bessarion in Venice. Birth of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
1464  Lorenzo de' Medici becomes a student at the Platonic Academy. Sigismondo Malatesta, condottiere of Rimini, leads an invasion of the Peloponnese, exhumes Plethon's remains and buries them in a sarcophagus in the outer wall of the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini. Death of Cosimo de' Medici. Death of Nicholas of Cusa. Printing reaches Italy
c. 1464  Bessarion in Rome; he founds a Platonic Academy which meets in his home. Sometime after this year, Bessarion donates to Venice his library of 800 Greek manuscripts, which becomes the nucleus of the Biblioteca Marciana. It contains the Corpus Hermeticum and the Corpus Alchimisticum
c. 1466  Birth of John Colet
1468  Ficino finishes his translation of Plato into Latin, the first complete translation into any western language
1469  Lorenzo "Il Magnifico" de' Medici becomes ruler of Florence at 20. Printing reaches Venice. Bessarion's In Calumniatorem Platonis published at Rome. Bessarion sends a copy of it to Ficino. Ficino begins the Theologia Platonica. Birth of Giles of Viterbo
1470  By this time, the Hermetic frescoes in Borso d'Este's Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara are completed. Perotti begins to publicize the Bessarionis Academia in Rome. Invention of lower-case type in Venice. Printing reaches France
1471  Publication of Ficino's translation of the Corpus Hermeticum at Florence. John Argyropoulos goes to Rome. George Ripley writes Compound of Alchymy... Divided Into Twelve Gates.... Printing reaches Utrecht (The Netherlands)
1472  Ficino ordained a priest. Bessarion in France. Death of Bessarion at Ravenna
1473  Printing reaches Poland (Cracow)
1474  Ficino completes the Theologia Platonica. Reuchlin matriculates at Basle. Printing reaches Spain
c. 1475  De alchemia, the first printed work on alchemy, published at Venice
1476  Peter d'Aubusson becomes Grand Master of the Knights of St. John (Hospitallers). William Caxton brings printing to England. George Ripley writes Medulla philosophiae chemicae
1477  Reuchlin gets M.A. from Basle. George Ripley made a chamberlain by Innocent VIII (no contemporaneous reference for this)
1478  Ripley returns to England (no contemporaneous reference for this)
1479  Peter d'Aubusson defends Rhodes against the fleet of Mohammed II, as a result of which he gains international fame in Europe. Pico goes to Ferrara and begins to study philosophy at the University
1480  Pico studies philosophy at the University of Padua, where he is a pupil of the Jewish Averroist Elia del Medigo
c. 1480  Mosaics of Hermes Trismegistus and Fortuna in the Siena Cathedral begun
1481  Reuchlin goes to Tubingen, intending to become a professor, but instead enters the service of Duke Eberhard I of Württemberg, who needs an interpreter for his upcoming trip to Italy. Zizim, son of Mohammed II, proclaimed Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, after successfully wresting the throne from his brother, Bajazet II
1482  Zizim defeated. He takes refuge with the Knights of St. John on Rhodes, who give him their famous Hospitality in return for constant peace with d'Aubusson and his successors, non-interference with commerce to, in, or from Rhodes or other Aegean islands, free access to all ports and provinces to sell merchandise tax-free, the right to remove 300 Christians a year from Zizim's dominions, the return of all islands which the Ottoman Empire had "stolen" from the Knights of Rhodes, and payment of the sum of 150,000 gold crowns. Reuchlin, in the service of Eberhard, goes to Florence and meets with Ficino, then to Rome where he becomes the pupil of John Argyropoulos. Trithemius finishes his studies at Heidelberg
1483  Peter d'Aubusson accepts a bribe from Bajazet II and betrays Zizim, locking him in prison. Trithemius becomes Abbot of Sponheim
1484  Ficino's translation of Plato published at Florence. Pico della Mirandola settles in Florence. He meets Ficino and convinces him to translate Plotinus. Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger publish Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches)
1485  Pico visits the University of Paris
1486  Marsilio Ficino completes the translation of Plotinus into Latin. Pico returns to Florence from Paris, then moves to Perugia, where he studies Hebrew and Arabic under several Jewish teachers. He becomes interested in the Jewish Cabala. Then he goes to Rome and publishes the 900 Theses, which he offers to defend against all comers. He even offers to pay the way of the challengers. The 900 Theses are the first fusion of Hermeticism and the Kabbalah, the birth of the Hermetic Cabala. Innocent VIII, influenced by the Malleus Maleficarum, issues a papal bull condemning witches. Beginning of European witch craze. Birth of Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa in Cologne. Death of John Argyropoulos
1487  Pico's Apologia and The Dignity of Man published. Pope Innocent VIII issues Bull condemning the 900 Theses, ending the debates, and naming a Commission of Inquisition. Pico flees to France, where he is arrested and jailed under papal authority
1488  Pico is released into the custody of Lorenzo Il Magnifico. He lives in Florence under "house arrest." James IV of Scotland issues charter Fratribus Hospitalis Hierosolimitani, Militibus Templi Solomonis (Brothers of the Hospital of Jerusalem, Knights of the Temple of Solomon), which reaffirms all the ancient rights and privileges of the Hospitallers and also the Templars. Hermes Trismegistus mosaic completed in the Siena Duomo
1489  Pierre d'Aubusson delivers Zizim to Pope Innocent VIII. In return he is made Cardinal. Ficino publishes De vita coelitus comparanda (On Drawing Down the Life of Heaven). Pico publishes Heptaplus
1490  Reuchlin goes to Florence, where he meets with Pico. Lorenzo de' Medici, at the exhortation of Pico, invites Savanarola to return to Florence. Death of George Ripley at Boston, Yorkshire
1492  Expulsion of the Jews from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella. Ficino's translation of Plotinus completed and published at Florence. Ficino's translation of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite completed. Rodrigo Borgia elected Pope as Alexander VI. John Colet leaves England to study on the Continent. Reuchlin goes on a mission from Eberhard to HRE Frederick III at Linz. He begins to study Hebrew under Frederick's body-surgeon Jakob Loans. Death of Lorenzo "Il Magnifico" de' Medici at age 44
1493  Pope Alexander VI Borgia issues Bulls exonerating Pico and approving the 900 Theses. He also writes a personal letter to Pico himself, stating Pico is a faithful son of the Church inspired by Divine Greatness, which is published in every subsequent edition of Pico's works
c. 1493  Birth of Theophrastus Paracelsus von Hohenheim at Einsiedeln, Switzerland
1494  Medicis exiled from Florence; Ficino retires to the country. Ficino succeeds in casting out Saturnian demons by astrological means. Reuchlin's De Verbo Mirifico published at Basle. Jacques Lefèvre d'Etaples publishes Ficino's Pimander at Paris. Death of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola from fever, perhaps induced by poison, at age 31
1495  Alexander VI receives a 300,000 ducat bribe from Bajazet II. Zizim dies under suspicious circumstances in Naples, after a 12-year imprisonment, probably poisoned by Alexander. Ficino again succeeds in casting out Saturnian demons by astrological means. Trithemius publishes his catalogue of famous Germans at Mainz, the first important bibliography
1496  Reuchlin flees to Heidelberg from Stuttgart upon the death of Eberhard I. He visits Trithemius and his library at Sponheim. John Colet returns to Oxford. Ficino's commentaries on Plato published
1497  Ficino's translation of Iamblichus published. Giles of Viterbo associates with Ficino in Florence, learns about Pico and begins to study Hebrew. Giles of Viterbo called to Rome to preach to Alexander VI
1498  Philip, Elector of the Palatinate, sends Reuchlin on a mission to Rome to find Hebrew texts that lasts two years. While there, he studies Hebrew under Obadiah Sforno. John Colet ordained priest. He reads Pico's Heptaplus and Ficino's Thelogia Platonica and Epistolae. Printing reaches Tübingen (Germany)
1499  John Colet corresponds with Ficino. He finishes his abstract of Celestial Hierarchies by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. John Colet meets Erasmus. Death of Marsilio Ficino at Careggi
1600  Dee moves to Manchester again. Henry IV weds Marie de' Medici at Paris. Henry Wotton in attendance. Tycho casts Rudolf II's horoscope. David Gans visits Tycho. Kepler accepts the invitation of Rudolf II and moves to Prague to escape the Counter-Reformation in Graz. He becomes Tycho's assistant, with the hopes of completing his study of the Harmony of the World. Jesensky moves to Prague. He arbitrates the dispute between Kepler and Tycho. Agrippa's Opera Omnia published at Lyon. Death of Hajek at Prague. Death of Bavor Rodovsky at Budyne. Scotland adopts Gregorian calendar
c. 1600  Birth of Samuel Hartlib at Elbing, Polish Prussia
1601  Henry Wotton goes on a secret mission from Ferdinand I, Grand Duke of Florence, to James VI in Scotland, with whom he stays for five months. Andreae enters Unversity of Württemberg. Pistorius goes to Prague and becomes confessor to Rudolf II. Tycho visits Budyne as the guest of Zajic. Death of Tycho Brahe after a "fatal banquet" at the home of Peter Vok Rozmberk. Jesensky delivers his funeral oration. Kepler becomes Imperial Mathematician and Court Astrologer at Prague. Debts force Peter Vok Rozmberk to sell Krumlov Castle. Rudolf II buys it
1602  Campanella writes City of the Sun in Italian. It goes unpublished for 20 years. First edition of Theatrum chemicum published by Zetzner at Strasbourg. Andreae matriculates at Tubingen at age 14. Alsted matriculates at Herborn, where his father is a teacher. Jesensky appointed Imperial Court Physician to Rudolf II. Tycho's Progymnasta published, in which he praises Digges as being second only to himself. Michael Maier begins to practice alchemy. On the death of his wife, Peter Vok Rozmberk vacates Cesky Krumlov, which already belongs to Rudolf II, and moves to Trebona. Death of Caspar Peucer at Dessau, Anhalt. Death of Petrus Severinus
1603  The Lincei, a secret society dedicated to natural philosophy with aims to establish chapters worldwide, founded by Cesi at Rome. Death of Queen Elizabeth I at age 70. Accession of James VI of Scotland as James I of England. William Paddy becomes his body-surgeon. Andreae writes the first version of the Chymische Hochzeit (Chemical Wedding). He receives B.A. from Tubingen. Special embassy from James VI/I invests Duke of Württemberg with the Order of the Garter in Stuttgart. Christian IV becomes Garter knight. Hein matriculates at Rostock at age 13. Clavius publishes his treatise on the Gregorian calendar reform. Maderno begins Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome
1604  Cesi becomes della Porta's patron and visits himin Naples. New stars appear in Serpentarius and Cygnus. They are observed by Kepler. His son, Friedrich, born; Wacker is godfather. Publication of the Naometria by Simon Studion. It contains extensive calculations of the dimensions of the Temple of Solomon, and describes a secret alliance between Henry IV of France, James VI/I, Christian IV of Denmark and Frederick, Duke of Württemberg that supposedly took place in 1586 in Luneburg. Pegel publishes Thesaurus rerum selectarum at Rostock, containing an art of memory as well as plans for a submarine, airships, automatic firearms, and a water heater. Sendivogius's Novum Lumen Chymicum is published in Prague as De lapide philosophorum tractatus duodecim. Also published at Frankfurt. Sir Henry Savile knighted and appointed to King James Bible committee, where he translates parts of the gospels, Acts and Revelation. Sir Henry Wotton knighted by James VI/I and becomes ambassador to Venice, until 1610. Burgi yields to the oft-repeated invitation of Rudolf II and moves to Prague. Birth of Johann Abraham Poemer near Nuremberg. Death of Dousa at Leiden of the plague. Death of Faustus Socinus at Luslawice, Poland. Death of Thomas Muffet. Maderno begins Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome
c. 1604  Rudolf II sends an embassy to della Porta at Naples, inviting him to Prague. Della Porta declines. Fabricius visits Wolfenbuttel. He meets with Krabbe
1605  Dee moves back to Mortlake. Sendivogius visits Frederick, Duke of Württemberg, who gives him the castle and estate of Neidlingen. Andreae receives MA from Tubingen. Duncan Liddel publishes Disputationes Medicinales, dedicated to Craig. Pegel publishes Aphorismi thesium selectarum de corporibus mundi totius primariis at Rostock. Pegel expelled from Rostock. He goes to Prague and enters the service of Rudolf II. Heinrich Julius recommends Krabbe to Rudolf II. Don Julius takes over Cesky Krumlov as a gift from Rudolf II. Birth of Theodore Haak at Neuhausen, near Worms. Pucci beheaded for heresy. Death of Heinrich Khunrath. Death of Albert Laski
1606  Trithemius's Steganographia published at Frankfurt in the Palatinate. Sendivogius returns to Cracow from Prague. Don Julius sent to a cloister in Gaming, Austria by Rudolf II, due to his mental condition
c. 1606  Alsted exposed to Bruno's work by Gregor Schoenfeld at Marburg. He is influenced by Egli and receives a manuscript from him
1607  Dee has angel conference at Mortlake with medium Bartholomew Hickman. Beginning of the Revival of the Hermetic Cabala in England. The movement coalesces around Prince Henry, son of James VI/I. Napier receives alchemical instruction from Daniel Mueller. Duncan Liddel publishes Ars Medica, dedicated to James VI/I, at Hamburg. He returns to Aberdeen. Oswald Croll, Christian von Anhalt's agent in Prague, visits Peter Vok Rozmberk in Trebona. Duke Heinrich Julius moves to Prague. Sinapius becomes Imperial Chemist to Rudolf II at Prague for curing him where others had failed. Don Julius returns to Cesky Krumlov and becomes involved with the daughter of the barber, Marketa Pichlerova. She comes to live at the castle. In a fit of madness, he beats her and carves her up. Thinking her dead, he throws her out the window. She lands in a rubbish heap and survives. When she recovers, Don Julius asks her to return to the castle. Her father refuses. Julius imprisons him. Marketa returns to the castle
1608  della Porta publishes De distillazione, dedicated to Cesi. Dee's alchemical experiments continue. Michael Maier goes to Prague. Formation of Union of German Protestant Princes under Frederick IV, Elector of the Palatinate. Christian von Anhalt is instrumental in its creation. Croll publishes Basilica Chymica which includes a letter from Peter Vok Rozmberk, who also finances the publication. It is dedicated to Christian von Anhalt. Sinapius knighted by Rudolf II. An expanded version of Khunrath's Amphitheatrum Sapientiae Aeternae published posthumously at Hanau in Hesse. Don Julius decapitates Marketa and cuts her body into multiple pieces. He is imprisoned in Cesky Krumlov Castle by Rudolf II. The madness Don Julius inherited from Juana la Loca worsens. He refuses food, and lives in his own waste. Death of John Dee. Death of Hugo Blotius at Vienna. Socinus's "Racovian Catechism" published in Latin at Rakow, with a dedication to James VI/I. Maderno begins Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome
1609  Fludd becomes a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. where he influences William Paddy, who suggests Fludd's circulation ideas to Harvey. German Protestant Princes Union allies with Henry IV of France. Heinrich Khunrath's Amphitheatre of Eternal Wisdom published posthumously at Hanover. It contains much influence of John Dee. Alsted's edition of Ramon Llull's Clavis artis Lullianae published by Zetzner in Strasbourg. Croll publishes De signaturis internis rerum, dedicated to Peter Vok Rozmberk. Michael Maier's De Medicina, his first work on alchemy, published at Prague. He enters the service of Rudolf II. Rudolf ennobles him with 3 titles, including Count Palatine, but no income to go with them. Rudolf issues Letter of Majesty, guaranteeing religious freedom in Bohemia. Kepler dedicates Somnuim to Wacker and Astronomia Nova to Rudolf II. Rudolf sends James VI/I a clock and a globe. Death of Carolus Clusius at Leiden. Death of Oswald Croll. Death of Don Julius of Austria at Cesky Krumlov. Trithemius's Steganographia placed on the Index
1610  Henry IV of France assassinated, as predicted by della Porta, by Francois Ravaillac. Della Porta joins the Lincei. Frederick V becomes Elector of the Palatinate at age 14. Christian von Anhalt becomes his Chancellor. Egli praises Alsted on his mastery of the Lullian Art. Alsted becomes professor of philosophy at Herborn. Barels gives Alsted the manuscript of Bruno's Consiliarius academicus. Alsted sends it to Zetzner in Strasbourg to publish. Copy of the Fama Fraternitatis seen in the Tyrol (Austria). By this time, Heinrich Julius is Chief Director of Rudolf II's Privy Council. The Duke acts as Rudolf's agent in negotiations between Catholics and Protestants, and with the Passau troops. Jan Tserklaes, Count of Tilly, appointed by Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria, to reorganize his armies. Michael Maier writes to August von Anhalt, Christian's brother, describing his alchemical work. Zajic becomes President of the Court of Appeals at Prague
1611  Galileo joins the Lincei at Rome. He admits della Porta invented the telescope, with support from the Lincei and Kepler. A chapter of the Lincei established at Naples, with della Porta as the head. They have membership rings and robes, and della Porta suggests they write a handbook of ceremonies. King James Bible published, containing the work of Henry Savile. The Tempest, an allegory of the life of John Dee, first performed. Wacker, still in the service of Rudolf II, participates in political intrigues. Kepler dedicates Strena seu nive sexangula to him. Michael Maier in England, where he stays until 1616. He sends James VI/I a Christmas card bearing the Rose-Cross, the earliest known occurrence of the Rose-Cross in England. August von Anhalt receives a copy of the Fama as a New Years gift from Adam Haslmeyer. Olaus Wormius reads a manuscript copy of the Fama that is in the possession of Johann Hartmann. Hein matriculates at Giessen and at Heidelberg six months later. Comenius matriculates at Herborn where he studies under Johann Heinrich Alsted, who knows Hebrew and Greek and exposes him to Ramon Llull. Charles I becomes Garter knight. Death of Peter Vok Rozmberk at Trebona. Death of Jan Zbynek Zajic z Hazmburka at Budyne
c. 1611  Wacker tells Kepler excitedly of Gallileo's discovery of the moons of Jupiter. Death of Francken
1612  James VI/I joins German Protestant Princes Union, now headed by Frederick V, Elector of the Palatinate. Frederick becomes Garter knight. "The Tempest" performed at his betrothal celebration. Death of Prince Henry of England of typhoid, before he can receive the Christmas card Maier made for him. His death, and the departure of his sister Elizabeth for Heidelberg the following year, end the Revival of the Hermetic Cabala in England. Duncan Liddel sets up a scholarship fund at the University of Aberdeen. Comenius reads the Fama and Confessio in manuscript. Adami visits Campanella in Naples prison. Death of Emperor Rudolf II. Michael Maier, Lutheran body-surgeon to the Catholic Emperor, leaves Prague. Kepler also leaves Prague. Perhaps Pegel leaves Prague and returns to Rostock. At or before this time, Sinapius receives Melnik Castle as a gift from Rudolf II. Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange becomes Garter knight
1613  Campanella writes a Latin version of City of the Sun. Marriage of Frederick V, Elector of the Palatinate to Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James VI/I. They return to Heidelberg and found a Rosicrucian State. .Comenius matriculates at Heidelberg, where he probably meets Andreae. He meets George Hartlib, brother of Samuel. Copy of the Fama circulated in Prague. Part of Gans's encyclopedia published. The rest remiains in manuscript. Zajic is forced by debts incurred from alchemy and castle remodeling to sell Budyne Castle. Liddel endows a Chair of Mathematics at Marischal College. Death of Duncan Liddel at Aberdeen. Death of David Gans. Death of Duke Heinrich Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel at Prague
1614  Publication of the Fama Fraternitatis, the first "Rosicrucian Manifesto," at Cassel in Hesse. Publication of George Ripley's Medulla philosophiae chemicae at Frankfurt, 125 years after his death. Michael Maier publishes Arcana Arcanissima, dedicated to William Paddy. Isaac Casaubon discovers that the Corpus Hermeticum is later than Plato. Comenius ordained in the Bohemian Brethren. He moves to Fulnek. Birth of John Wilkins. Birth of Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont, son of Paracelsus's chief disciple, Jan Baptista van Helmont, at Brussels
c. 1614  Michael Maier becomes body-surgeon to Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse
1615  Publication of the Confessio, the second "Rosicrucian Manifesto," at Cassel in Hesse. Along with it, as a preface, is published A Brief Consideration of More Secret Philosophy, based on John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica, much of it a word-for-word translation into German of Dee's work. Faulhaber publishes Mysterium Arithmeticum, with a dedication to "most enlightened and famous Brothers R.C." Alsted publishes Theologia naturalis with Tetragrammmaton crowning title page. Sendivogius visits Hartmann at Magdeburg. Perhaps Pegel moves to Stettin and becomes professor at the invitation of Duke Philip of Pomerania. Death of Giambattista della Porta at Naples
1616  Shakespeare and Cervantes die on the same day. End of the Middle Ages. Chymische Hochzeit: Christiani Rosencreutz (Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosencreutz) by Johann Valentin Andreae pulished by Zetzner at Strasbourg. It contains Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica symbol on the title page. Alsted publishes Physica harmonica containing refereces to Reuchlin's De Arte Cabbalistica and De verbo mirifico, Pico della Mirandola's 900 Theses, the Sepher Yetzirah and Hermes Trismegistus. Adami returns to Tubingen. Michael Maier returns to Germany from London. Sendivogius's Tractatus de sulphure published. Dudley Carleton becomes English ambassador to the Netherlands. He lives at The Hague. Fludd publishes Apologia Compendiaria defending the Rosicrucian Brotherhood. Death of Johannes Krabbe at Wolfenbuttel
1617  Adami publishes Campanella's De Sensu Rerum et Magia at Tubingen, with his own ad Germanos Philosophos as a preface. Ferdinand Hapsburg becomes King of Bohemia without election. He begins suppression of the Bohemian Brethren. Jesensky becomes Rector of Charles University, Prague. First volume of Fludd's Utriusque Cosmi... Historia published by de Bry at Oppenheim. Maier's Symbola aureae mensae duodecim published at Frankfurt. It is dedicated to James VI/I. Birth of Elias Ashmole at Lichfield. Death of John Napier at Edinburgh
1618  Claims to East Prussia pressed by Teutonic Knights against Elector of Brandenburg. Hein matriculates at Heidelberg the second time. Jesensky publishes Typotius's De Hieroglyphia and dedicates it to Zerotin. Jesensky backs Bohemian uprising. Michael Maier makes a journey from London to Prague. His Atalanta Fugiens published by de Bry at Oppenheim. His Themis Aurea, in which he praises the Rosicrucians, published at Frankfurt. He presents Moritz of Hesse with all his works. Moritz rewards him with the title "Physician and Chemist." "Teophilus Schweighardt's" Speculum sophicum rhodostauroticum published with no name or place of publisher. It contains the famous engraving of the Invisible College of the Rosicrucian Brothers. Descartes quits reading the works of others and leaves home to study "The Book Of The World." Jan Tserklaes (Tilly) made Commander-In-Chief of the field forces of the Catholic League. Birth of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart, at Heidelberg
c. 1618  William Boswell becomes secretary to Carleton at The Hague. Death of Magnus Pegel, perhaps at Stettin
1619  Election of Frederick V, Elector of the Palatinate, as King of Bohemia. His mother urges him not to accept it. He accepts in September. He is crowned in Prague by Hussite clergy. German Protestant Princes Union refuses to support him. Comenius attends the coronation. Jesensky goes on several secret missions for Frederick. Christian von Anhalt becomes commander of Bohemian army. Wacker flees to Vienna where he dies. Sendivogius goes to Vienna and enters the service of Ferdinand II. Andreae's Christianopolis published by Zetzner in Strasbourg. It defines the term "theosophy" and mentions "The Supreme Architect Of The Universe." Preface by Andreae refers to the Chemical Wedding as a joke. Andreae's Turris Babel published by Zetzner in Strasbourg, dedicated to Heinrich Hein. Andreae's Christianae societatis imago published anonymously by Zetzner in Strasbourg. Alsted becomes professor of theology at Herborn. Kepler writes Napier, thanking him for logarithms, only to discover that he died 2 years previously. Poemer matriculates at Altdorf. Descartes has a vision in a dream in which he discovers a "marvelous science," which becomes analytic geometry. He seeks the "Brothers R.C." in Germany. Sir Henry Savile endows professorships of geometry and astronomy at Oxford. William Harvey becomes body-surgeon to James VI/I. Huniades in England by this time. Birth of Prince Rupert, son of Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart, at Prague. Death of Johannes Matthias Wacker von Wackenfels at Vienna
1620  Battle of the White Mountain, near Prague. James VI/I sells out his own daughter and withholds his promised support. Forces of Frederick utterly defeated by the Spanish mercenary army under the command of Jan Tserklaes, Count of Tilly. Descartes fights on the side of Catholic forces, and enters Prague with the victors. Federick and Elizabeth Stuart flee to Breslau. End of the Renaissance. Beginning of the Thirty Years War. Andreae becomes chief pastor at Calw, in Wurttemberg, where he remains until 1639. Spinola invades Lower Palatinate in the absence of Frederick. Oppenheim falls. De Bry, Oppenheim publisher of works by Fludd and Maier, moves to Frankfurt. Heidelberg ravaged. Libraries' contents thrown into stable yards and trampled by horses. Prior to the Battle, Henry Wotton writes a poem praising Elizabeth Stuart. He meets Kepler at Linz, and tries to convince him to come to England. He goes to Vienna, stays with Ferdinand II, and after the Battle, joins with Bethlen Gabor of Transylvania in an attempt at peace. Sinapius jailed when Protestants take over Melnik. He is released in an exchange with Jesensky. The Catholics free Jesensky in return for the Protestants freeing Sinapius. Sinapius goes into exile. Michael Maier in Magdeburg. Hein matriculates at Leiden as a law student. Descartes meets Faulhaber. Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock
c. 1620  Andreae founds the Christliche Gottliebende Gesellschaft, or Societas Christiana, at Calw
1621  Jesensky executed for his part in the 1618 uprising. Sinapius returns to Melnik. Rudolf's Letter of Majesty torn up by Ferdinand II personally. Ferdinand II gives Lower Palatinate to Maximillian, Duke of Bavaria. Dissolution of German Protestant Princes Union. Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart take refuge in The Hague, in the home of the English ambassador Dudley Carleton. Christian von Anhalt exiled from the HRE. He takes refuge in Sweden, then in Flensberg with Christian IV of Denmark. Comenius loses everything when Spanish soldiers burn his house down. He takes refuge with Zerotin. Fulk Greville made a baron. Arthur Dee, son of John, goes to Moscow at the invitation of Tsar Michael I and the recommendation of James VI/I. Andreae's Christiani amoris dextera porrecta published by Zetzner in Strasbourg. From now until 1623, Jan Tserklaes successfully conducts campaign in the Palatinate. Birth of Thomas Vaughan at Newton, Wales. Death of Sir Henry Savile
after 1621  Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria rededicated to the Virgin in commemoration of the Battle of the White Mountain
1622  James VI/I dissolves Parliament. Frederick V sets up Palatinate government-in-exile. Council is headed by Ludwig Camerarius, son of Camerarius the Younger. Michael Maier disappears at Magdeburg, during the invasion of the Spanish army, never to be seen again. Remainder of Heidelberg library transported on 200 mules to Rome. It becomes part of the Vatican Library. Birth of Christian August von Pfalz-Sulzbach at Sulzbach. Death of Michael Maier at Magdeburg. Death of Sir Henry Savile at Eton. Death of Sinapius at Prague
1623  Campanella's Latin version of City of the Sun published at Frankfurt. Comenius's wife and two of his children die of the plague. He writes The Labyrinth of the World and the Paradise of the Heart whose presentation is based on Andreae's Peregrini in Patria errores. Rosicrucian scare begins in France. Mersenne publishes Quaestiones celeberrimae in Genesim, the first massive attack against the Hermetic Cabala. He criticizes Ficinio, Pico, Agrippa, Giorgi and Fludd, among others. Descartes returns to Paris, where he is branded a Rosicrucian. Jean d'Espagnet's Hermetic Arcanum published at Paris
1624  Christian von Anhalt granted amnesty and returns to Anhalt. Death of Jakob Boehme
1625  Death of James VI of Scotland/James I of England. Accession of Charles I, who declares war on Spain, ostensibly to help Frederick V regain the Palatinate, but more because of a slight that had occurred to him the previous year. The war is over by December, ending in utter disaster with nothing gained. Haak studies at Oxford and Cambridge. Poemer matriculates at Rostock where he comes under the influence of Heinrich Hein, who is teaching law there. Hein invites Poemer to join the Antilia society. Ricci joins Antilia society
1626  Campanella released from Castel Nuovo after Urban VIII personally intercedes with Philip IV. He goes to Rome under house arrest in Urban's custody. He remains Urban's astrologer for five years. Comenius goes to The Hague where he shows Frederick V a manuscript of the prophecies of Christopher Kotter, one of which is that Frederick will return to Bohemia. Sendivogius becomes privy councillor to Ferdinand II. Fludd publishes Sophia cum moria certamen, in which admits his involvement with the Rosicrucians. Haak studies at Oxford and Cambridge. Haak in Cologne
1627  Comenius leads Bohemian Brethren to exile in Lissa, Poland. He becomes head of the Bohemian and Moravian Churches. Alsted's Diatribe mille annis apocalypticis published at Frankfurt, which says that the Millennium will start in 1674. Moritz of Hesse abdicates. Gustavus Adolphus becomes Garter knight
1628  Fludd helps Harvey publish De motu cordis at Frankfurt. Edict of Restitution removes Zerotin'a ability to shelter Comenius, who then leads Bohemian Brethren into exile in Lissa, Poland. He becomes head of the Bohemian and Moravian Churches. Samuel Hartlib meets John Dury in Elbing. Hartlib moves to England. Haak at Gloucester Hall (the Calvinist center in Oxford) from now until 1631. He does not get a degree. At Poemer's direction, he tries to export the Antilia society to Virginia. Poemer marries Helena Bachmann in Danzig. Fulk Greville murdered by his servant at Warwick
c. 1628  Andreae attempts to re-launch the Societas Christiana at Nuremberg. Hartlib head of a short-lived Baconian Salomon House in Chichester
1629  Fludd publishes Medicina Catholica, dedicated to William Paddy. Alsted moves to Weissenburg, capital of Transylvania, at the invitation of Prince Gabor Bethlen, where he founds the Collegium Bethlenianum, a Calvinist academy. Andreae writes Comenius about the Imago and the Laws of the Societas Christiana which he has already sent him. Andreae names Comenius his spiritual heir and successor. Arthur Dee, still in Moscow, compiles Fasciculus Chemicus, containing most of the Corpus Alchimisticum
1630  Kepler preparing Somnium for publication at the time of his death; it is dedicated to Wacker. Alsted publishes Encyclopedia Omnium Scientiarum in seven volumes, attempting to contain all man's knowledge. Hartlib moves to London, where he lives at Duke’s Place, Holborn for the rest of his life. Dury leaves Elbing. He sends the Laws of the Antilian society to Hartlib. Ferdinand II gives Sendivogius the villages of Kravar and Kouty in Silesia. Since there are no non-Cyrillic printing presses in Russia, Arthur Dee's Fasciculus Chemicus published at Paris. Birth of Countess Sophia, mother of King George I of England, to Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart. Jan Tserklaes replaces Wallenstein as commander of the Imperial forces. Death of Federico Cesi. End of the Lincei. Death of Christian von Anhalt at Bernberg
1631  Army of Gustavus Adolphus defeat Tilly's forces at the Battle of Breitenfeld. Frederick V leaves The Hague for Heidelberg. Comenius publishes Janua linguarum reserata which establishes his worldwide reputation and is eventually translated into 15 languages. His Labyrinth of the World printed in Czech
c. 1631  David Lindsay does a tranlation of the Fama Also included in his alchemical notebooks are transcriptions of Sendivogius's New Chymical Light, Speculum sophicum rhodostauroticum, Hermetic Arcanum and a dictionary of Paracelsus
1632  Urban VIII issues the Bull Inscrutabilis against astrologers, as a cover for his involvement with Campanella. Comenius becomes last bishop of the Bohemian Brethren. His Janua linguarum reserata published at London. Hartlib begins correspondence with Comenius, who is touched by Hartlib's charity. John Williams puts Hartlib in charge of his “academy” of young noblemen at his palace of Buckden. Hein becomes law professor at universtity of Dorpat (Tartu). Poemer becomes head of Antilia society. Frederick V and Gustavus Adolphus meet at Frakfurt. Death of Frederick V, Elector of the Palatinate, at Mainz. Death of Jan Tserklaes, Count of Tilly, at the battle of Lech against Gustavus Adolphus. Death of Gustavus Adolphus. Death of Moritz of Hesse at Eschwege
1633  Elizabeth Stuart raises an army on behalf of her son, Charles Louis, who also becomes Garter knight. David Lindsay crowns Charles I at Holyrood. Charles advances him to Lord Lindsay. Count Rackoczy summons Huniades to Transylvania. Lissa incorporated
1634  Campanella forced to leave Rome due to renewed Spanish suspicions. He goes to Paris, where he is warmly received by Louis XIII and Richelieu. Andreae loses everything in a fire. Hartlib begins fund-raising for the publication of Comenius's Pansophiae prodromus. David Lindsay admitted to the Privy Council of Scotland, made one of the Lords of the Exchequer, and appointed Bishop of Edinburgh
1635  Alsted writes Prodromus religionis triumphantis, which remains unpublished for 6 years. Sendivogius visits the Imperial Court in Vienna. Mersenne meets Campanella. He asks if Descartes wants Campanella to go to the Netherlands to meet him. Decartes declines. Dury becomes tutor to Mary, Princess of Orange in the Hague. He meets with Descartes, "unproductively". Huniades lives in Whitechapel, London
1636  Dury goes to Stockholm, where he remains until 1638. He tries to secure land for the Antilia society. Hartlib introduces Comenius to Dury, who distributes Comenius's works in Sweden. Hartlib sends Poemer a sketch of Comenius's Delineatio Didacticae. Poemer establishes contact with Andreae, using Hein as a recommendation. Death of Michael Sendivogius at Kravare (now Czech Republic). Death of Karel Zerotin at Prerov, Moravia
1637  At the request of Richelieu, Campanella writes Chiroroscopia, on palmistry. Arthur Dee becomes body-surgeon to Charles I. Parliament funds an expedition by Charles Louis to retake the Palatinate. He is defeated at Vlotho. Prince Rupert captured and imprisoned at Linz. Ferdiand III tries to convert him to Catholicism, including offers of a generalship and princedom. Rupert remains Calvinist. He receives the gift of a rare white poodle, which remains with him for years. Hartlib becomes a minister of Charles Louis. David Lindsay reads from Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer at the Edinburgh cathedral. Brulart de Sillery, a noted Knight of Malta, establishes a chapel near Quebec. Death of Robert Fludd at London
1638  Haak matriculates at Leiden, then moves to England later that year. Comenius accepts an invitation from Queen Christina and Oxenstierna go to Sweden to reform the school system. Hartlib gets Comenius's Pansophiae prodromus published at London. Charles II becomes Garter knight. Henry Adamson publishes Muses Threnodie, containing, "we be brethren of the Rosie Crosse; We have the Mason word, and second sight," the first known link between Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry. Death of Johann Heinrich Alsted at Weissenburg, Transylvania
c. 1638  Poemer visits Hartilib and Dury in London. Poemer admitted to Unio Christiana by Andreae. David Lindsay excommunicated. He goes to England
1639  Andreae becomes court preacher to Eberhard III at Wurttemberg (or Stuttgart). Poemer visits Comenius at Lissa. Ricci visits Hein at Dorpat. He writes to Hartlib of his visit, mentioning the Antilia society. Alsted's Turris Babel published posthumously at Herborn. Haak is correspondent between the Hartlib circle and Mersenne for several years. Death of Tommaso Campanella at Paris
1640  Poemer asks Andreae for help bringing Hein back to Germany from Dorpat to rejoin those working toward the Antilia society. Poemer tells Andreae that the Antilia society is similar to the one Andreae described in Christianopolis. John Gauden preaches to Parliament that Comenius and John Dury should be invited to London. Hartlib posthumously publishes John Stoughton's Felicitas Ultimi Saeculi. It lauds Alsted on his move to Transylvania. It also praises Bacon, Dury and Comenius. Hartlib adds a dedication to Count Rackoczy. Parliament meets again for the first time since 1629. Hartlib directed by Parliament to issue invitations to Comenius and Dury
1641  Dury goes to England at the invitation of Parliament. Comenius sets out for England at the invitation of Parliament, but a gale off the coast of Norway drives his battered ship back to Danzig. He considers abandoning the trip, but sets out again, reaching England, where he heads a committee to reform all phases of society. He writes Way of Light describing and advocating the creation of an "invisible college." He investigates the Savoy Hospital and the deserted college of Chelsea in London, and St. Cross Hospital in Winchester as possible locations. Hartlib and Dury are also on the committee. This is the first time all three have met in person. Haak meets the three in London. Huniades uses alcohol thermometer in distillation experiments. Andreae gives Poemer the green light for establishing the Antilia commune. Hartlib publishes A Description of the Famous Kingdom of Macaria describing the Antilia utopia they were trying to bring into being. Alsted's Prodromus religionis triumphantis published. Andreae receives Doctor of Theology from Tubingen. Prince Rupert released from Linz on promise never to do battle against the HRE again. He goes to England, where Charles I makes him a General of Horse. Death of Sir David Lindsay
1642  English Civil War breaks out, disrupting the reforms of Comenius, Hartlib and Dury. Comenius returns to Sweden at the invitation of Lewis de Geer. The day before he leaves England, John Pym summons Hartlib and him to a meeting to implement replacing the teaching of the Ptolemaic system with the Copernican in the English educational system. He is offered presidency of the six-year-old Harvard by John Winthrop Jr., but turns it down. He also turns down an offer from Cardinal Richelieu to found an academy of science. He meets Descartes at Endegeest Castle near Leiden. Later he moves to Elbing, Polish Prussia. Huniades professor of chemistry at Gresham College in London. John Webster is his student. James II and Prince Rupert become Garter knights
1643  Descartes becomes teacher of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart. John Milton meets Hartlib. Pym appoints Dury to the Westminster Assembly, which was to refashion the Church after Parliament's victory in the Civil War. Haak is sent by Parliament on a diplomatic mission to Denmark. Hein refers in his last surviving letter to "our long-desired Antilia." Death of Tobias Adami
c. 1643  Milton writes Artis Logicae Plenior Institutio ad Petri Rami Methodum concinnata, perhaps the last treatise on Ramus. It remains unpublished for 30 years
1644  Descartes moves to Leiden to be near Princess Elizabeth. He dedicates the Principia philosophiae to her. He receives Hermetic initialtion from her. John Milton addresses Tractate on Education to Hartlib. Haak returns to England. Charles Louis, brother of Princess Elizabeth and Elector Palatine in exile, returns to England at the invitation of Parliament. Wilkins becomes his chaplain. Haak becomes his secretary. Prince Rupert becomes General of the entire Royalist army. Numerous pamphlets accuse him of witchcraft, and his poodle of being his familiar
1645  Dury returns to England and preaches at the House of Commons. Prince Rupert fired by Charles I, exonerated and reinstated by court martial, then quits. Priory of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem established in Quebec at Chateau Frontinac. Prototype Royal Society, the "Invisible College" forms around Robert Boyle in London and John Wilkins at Oxford, perhaps around Haak as well. The Philosophical Society of Oxford continues to meet until 1659
1646  Comenius asks Hartlib in a letter whether, now that peace was restored, the time had come to establish in England "the College of Light." Hartlib publishes two tracts telling Parliament how to establish Antilia in England. Letters from Boyle to Hartlib refer to an "Invisible College" which is already meeting to reform scientific education. Elias Ashmole initiated into Freemasonry at Warrington in Lancashire. Prince Rupert banished by Parliament
1647  Hartlib publishes English tranlations, at Cambridge, of Andreae's Christianae societatis imago and Christiani amoris dextera porrecta, which he received from Comenius. Haak is again correspondent between the Hartlib circle and Mersenne until Mersenne's death in 1648. Cornaro Chapel by Bernini begun in the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria
1648  Treaty of Westphalia ends the 30 Years War. Among other things it returns the Lower Palatinate to Charles Louis, son of Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart. Wilkins becomes warden of Wadham College, Oxford. He writes Mathematical Magick, based on Fludd's Utriusque Cosmi... Historia, referencing the Fama and Confessio, Dee's Preface to Euclid, Agrippa, and, indirectly, Asclepius. Comenius becomes last bishop of the Bohemian Brethren. Comenius goes from Elbing to England for two years. Hartlib and Dury publish many pamphlets over the next two years. Some of their reforms are actually implemented. Prince Rupert becomes head of Royalist fleet.
1649  Execution of Charles I. Charles Louis, the Elector Palatine, leaves England and returns to Heidelberg. Haak turns down an invitation to accompany him, but acts as his agent in London. Princess Elizabeth suggests that Descartes move with her to Heidelberg, but he becomes tutor to Queen Christina of Sweden instead. Christian August becomes ruler of Sulzbach. Van Helmont convinces him to establish a policy of religious toleration, extended to Catholics, separatist sects, and Jews. Dury and his wife involved in alchemical experiments. Arthur Dee contracts with Huniades to perform alchemical experiments. George Ripley's Opera Omnia, containing pseudepigraphic works, published at Cassel
1650  Thomas Vaughan publishes Anthroposophia Theomagica, dedicated to the "regenerated Brethren R.C.", under the pseudonym "Eugenius Philalethes." This leads to a literary duel with Henry More. Henry More begins to correspond with Lady Conway. Ashmole translates Arthur Dee's Fasciculus Chemicus into English, under the anagrammatic pseudonym James Hasholle. Dee rebukes him for doing so in a letter. Andreae becomes abbot of Bebenhausen. Sendivogius's Novum Lumen Chymicum, translated as A New Light Of Alchymie by John French, published in London. Comenius accepts invitation of Count Rackoczy and/or his wife Zsuzsanna Lorantffy and moves to Sarospatak for four years to teach at the first Protestant university in Hungary. Death of Descartes in Stockholm, perhaps by poisoning. Death of Joannes Banfi Huniades
c. 1650  (date unknown) Pariliament renews the pension to Elizabeth Stuart that Charles I had instituted
1651  Pierre des Noyers writes a letter discrediting Sendivogius. He apparently makes up the figure of Alexander Seton, Scottish alchemist, whose biographical data only exists from 1601-04 and only in Noyers's letter. Van Helmont moves to Sulzbach. Death of Arthur Dee at Norwich. He leaves most of his alchemical manuscripts to Sir Thomas Browne
1652  Hartlib suggests to Cromwell that displaced Bohemians and other Continental Protestants be relocated to Ireland. Fulk Greville's Life of Sir Philip Sidney published posthumously. Ashmole's Theatrum chemicum Britannicum published at London. In it, he claims that George Ripley donated 100,000 pounds per year to the Knights of Rhodes to aid in their wars against the Turks. Thomas Vaughn publishes English translation of the Fama and Confessio. This is an adaptation of the manuscript by David Lindsay done in 1631. Prince Rupert loses his flagship to a storm. He acquires a Mauritanian servant boy who remains with him for many years. He explores The Gambia and contracts malaria, from which he continues to suffer for the rest of his life. The Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Hospitallers) obtains possession of St. Kitts, St. Croix, and others of the French West Indies for 5,000 pounds
1653  Van Helmont convinces Christian August to negotiate the free worship of Catholics as well as Lutherans in Sulzbach. Hooke arrives at Oxford and joins the Wilkins circle. William III (William of Orange) becomes Garter knight
c. 1653  Henry More publishes Conjectura Cabbalistica at London, dedicated to Ralph Cudworth. Comenius works to drive Austrians out of Bohemia. He impels Count Rakoczy to sign a treaty with England and Sweden to do so, but nothing materializes
before 1654  Andreae writes his autobiography. It was not published, but only discovered in the late 18th century. It contains a list of correspondents that includes Heinrich Hein and Johannes Kepler. John Webster writes Examination of Academies, mentioning the Rosy Cross, Hermes Trismegistus, Boehme, Fludd and Dee's Preface to Euclid
1654  Andreae becomes abbot of Adelberg. Comenius returns to Lissa, Poland. Cromwell suggests Bohemian Brethren and Waldenses relocate to Ireland. Comenius refuses. (Trevor-Roper says this happens in 1656.) Dury goes on a tour of the Continent as Cromwell's special envoy. Death of Johann Valentin Andreae at Stuttgart
c. 1654  Prince Rupert invents mezzotint printmaking
1655  Pierre Borel publishes Noyers's letter defaming Sendivogius in Trevor de recherches et antiquites gauloises et francoises. Poemer converts to Catholicism. This causes public controversy with Johann Fabricius. Poemer moves to Sulzbach. Christian August converts to Catholicism. Boyle moves to Oxford. Comenius makes the mistake of siding with the Swedish invaders of Poland and praising Charles X in a pamphlet, Panegyricus Carolo Gustavo, which is published in London by Hartlib. John Heydon publishes Eugenius Theodidactus, The Prophetical Trumpeter . . . illustrating the Fate of Great Britain. (A celestial vision in heroic verse), his echo of the Fama, at London
1656  Comenius's house and printing press burned by Polish patriots. He once again loses everything. He moves to Amsterdam at the invitation of Lawrence de Geer, son of Lewis. Cromwell starts a relief fund for displaced Bohemians and invites Comenius to England. Comenius refuses. Wilkins marries Cromwell's sister
1657  Comenius's house and printing press burned by Polish patriots. He once again loses everything. He moves to Amsterdam. Cromwell starts New College in Durham. Hartlib writes its statutes. Charles Louis and Prince Rupert have a falling out. Prince Rupert vows never to return to the Palatinate. He goes to work for his former captor, Ferdinand III, in Hungary
1658  Comenius's Orbis sensualium pictus, influenced by Campanella's City of the Sun, published at Nuremberg. Heydon publishes A New Method of Rosie Crucian Physick. Hooke working with Boyle by this time
1659  Wilkins becomes Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. Letter from Comenius to a friend asking for help replacing works by Andreae that were lost in the fire. Meric Casaubon publishes his damnation of Dee, Trithemius and Paracelsus, which sullies their reputations for the next 300 years
c. 1659  Philosophical Society of Oxford moves to London
1660  Charles II restored as King of England. Prince Rupert returns to England. Establishment of the Royal Society in London, the successor to the Philosophical Society of Oxford, with Wilkins as its founding Secretary. Charles II gives Chelsea College to Wilkins for use as headquarters. Prince Rupert is the third founding member. Heydon released from prison. He publishes The Rosie Crucian Infallible Axiomata; or, generall rules to know all things past, present, and to come at London. Hartlib writes to Boyle (?) in January that he expects Antilia will “have a more visible being” within three months. He starts considering Bermuda as the location for Antilia. Hartlib writes John Evelyn, advocating that the Royal Society be the Antilia society. His pleas are rejected. Durham College dissolved. Reforms that Hartlib, Dury and Comenius managed to implement are abandoned or negated. Final edition of Theatrum chemicum, the largest work on alchemy ever printed, published by Zetzner in Strasbourg. It contains Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica, Sendivogius's Aenigma philosophicum (inspired by Bavor Radovsky's translation of a treatise by Bernard of Treviso), works by Thomas Muffet, George Ripley, Roger Bacon, Giovanni Francesco Pico della Mirandola (Pico's nephew and biographer), Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Avicenna, and pseduepigraphical works attributed to Hermes Trismegistus (including the Emerald Table), Llull and Arnaud de Villanova
c. 1660  Hein founds Arndianum collegam et chemae, a Rosicrucian society, at Dorpat
1661  Haak becomes an Original Fellow of the Royal Society at nomination of Wilkins. Elizabeth Stuart returns to England to visit Charles II. Dury moves to Cassel under the patronage of Landgrave William VI. Van Helmont arrested and taken to Rome. Pope Alexander VIII is unwilling to condemn him, partially due to the public reaction that would result, particularly in the Netherlands. Prince Rupert instigates an exploratory expedition in The Gambia
1662  Heydon claims to be a Rosicrucian in The Holy Guide, published at London. Ashmole joins the Royal Society. Christian V becomes Garter knight. Death of Elizabeth Stuart in London. Death of Samuel Hartlib
1663  Prince Rupert invents a new gunpowder ten times more powerful than the old. Knorr von Rosenroth moves to Sulzbach. Leibniz initiated into a "Rosicrucian society" at Nuremberg
1664  Heydon publishes the last of three volumes of Theomagia, or the temple of wisdom in three parts, spiritual, celestial, and elemental: containing the occult powers of the angels of astromancy in the telesmatical sculpture of the Persians and Ægyptians: the mysterious vertues of the characters of the stars...the knowledge of the Rosie Crucian physick, and the miraculous secrets of nature, the first of which was publihed in 1662; and The Wise Man's Crown; or, The Glory of the Rosie-Cross . . . with the full discovery of the true Cœlum Terræ, or first matter of the Philosophers. . . . With the Regio Lucis, and Holy Household of Rosie Crucian Philosophers, all at London
1665  Heydon publishes El Havarevna; or, the English Physitian's Tutor in the Astrobolismes of Mettals Rosie Crucian at Londond. Caribbean islands possessed by the Order of St. John sold to a merchant company
1666  Christian August allows Jews to settle in Sulzbach. Leibniz initiated into a "Rosicrucian society" at Nuremberg. Death of Heinrich Hein at Dorpat
1667  Leibniz becomes secretary of the Rosicrucian Society of Nuremberg. Princess Elizabeth becomes Abbess of Herford
1668  Comenius's Way of Light published at Amsterdam, 26 years after it was written, dedicated to the Royal Society. In his introduction, Comenius refers to members of the Royal Society as "illuminati." Isaac Newton buys Theatrum chemicum, which, at his death, contains more marginal annotations than any other work in his library
1669  Newton reads and annotates his copies of Maier's Symbola aureae mensae duodecim, Sendivogius's Novum Lumen Chymicum and George Ripley's Opera Omnia. Pinocci publishes Lettre missive, contenant la vie de Sendivogius, based on the calumnies of Noyers, but adding some self-contradictory "facts". Isaac Cohen Judels of Prague starts a Hebrew printing press in Sulzbach at the invitation of Christian August
1670  Membership in the Royal Society has doubled since 1660. Sometime after this, Haak becomes close friends with Hooke. Van Helmont leaves Sulzbach. He goes to England on a mission from Princess Elizabeth. He meets Boyle. He meets Henry More, who persuades him to visit Lady Conway. Van Helmont moves into Ragley Hall, where he remains until 1679 as physician to Lady Conway. Prince Rupert becomes first director of the Hudson's Bay Company. Death of John Amos Comenius in Amsterdam
1671  Leibniz first meets van Helmont. They discuss alchemy at length. Van Helmont introduces Leibniz to Knorr von Rosenroth
1672  Milton's Artis Logicae Plenior Institutio ad Petri Rami Methodum concinnata published at London. Death of John Wilkins in London
1673  Charles Louis invites Prince Rupert to the Palatinate, to marry and have an heir, as it looks like his own son will not survive to manhood. Rupert declines. Death of John Wilkins in London
1674  Dury publishes Touchant l’intelligence de l’Apocalypse par l’Apocalypse meme at Cassel, which is an about-face on the use of Revelation terminology to describe the events of the Thirty Years War and the Civil War, e.g antichrist=Pope. Sir Thomas Browne writes to Ashmole, answering his request with information about Arthur Dee
1675  George Keith visits Ragley Hall. Van Helmont gets him interested in the Kabbalah. He corresponds with Knorr von Rosenroth, mentioning Guillaume Postel
1676  Wolfgang Ernst Heidel, counselor to the Archbishop of Mainz, decodes Volume 3 of Trithemius's Steganographia. He publishes the decryption in code, so his claims are discounted
1677  Van Helmont publishes A Cabbalistical Dialogue in Latin. He and Lady Conway declare themselves to be Quakers. Knorr von Rosenroth publishes Kabbala Denudata at a press founded by him, van Helmont and Christian August. At some point between 1669 and 1689 they also publish Knorr's translation of the Sepher-ha-Zohar
1678  Prince Rupert becomes Lord High Admiral and General At Sea And Land
1679  In a letter, Locke says that Boyle has told him about the publication of a new Latin translation of the Zohar. Death of Lady Conway at Ragley Hall
1680  Death of Princess Elizabeth at Herford. Death of John Dury at Cassel
1682  Ashmole attends a lodge meeting at Masons Hall, London, at which he is the senior fellow. Van Helmont publishes A Cabbalistical Dialogue in English. Death of Prince Rupert at London
1687  John Locke meets van Helmont. He goes to Sulzbach and meets with Knorr von Rosenroth. Synagogue built at Sulzbach. Death of Johann Abraham Poemer at Sulzbach
1688  Leibniz goes to Sulzbach and meets with Knorr von Rosenroth
1690  Foxcroft's translation of Chymische Hochzeit published posthumously. Death of Theodore Haak at London
1692  Death of Elias Ashmole at London
1694  Van Helmont stays with Locke for five months
1699  Death of Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont. Leibniz writes his epitaph
c. 1700  (date unknown, only that it's "long after" 1666) Leibniz writes of an Order of Charity, which is virtually a synopsis of the Fama
1703  Newton sends Locke his proof that concept of the Trinity has no scriptural basis
1708  Death of Christian August von Pfalz-Sulzbach at Sulzbach
1710  Publication of The perfect and true preparation of the Philosophers Stone according to the secret of the Brotherhoods of the Golden and Rosy Cross by "Sincerus Renatus" at Breslau. It is generally thought that Sincerus Renatus is Sigmund Richter
1714  George Ludwig, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, grandson of Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart, great-nephew of Heinrich Julius, becomes King George I of England. Freemasonry is officially established during his reign
1717  First Grand Lodge of Freemasonry established in London. King George I is a member
1721  Freemasonry reaches France. Brotherhood and Friendship Lodge founded at Dunkirk
1722  Birth of Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund. Death of Princess Elizabeth at Heidelberg
1738  Bull condemning Freemasonry issued by Clement XII
1741  Manoel Pinto, Grand Master of the Knights of St. John, expels the Jesuits from Malta
1743  Saint-Germain goes to England
c. 1743  First Masonic lodge in Paris which is chartered by the English Grand Lodge established
1745  Saint-Germain imprisoned in England for espionage
1751  Martines de Pasqually founds Scottish Judges at Montpelier, France
1752  England adopts the Gregorian calendar
1753  Sweden adopts the Gregorian calendar
1754  Baron Hund founds Strict Observance Lodge
1756  Grand Lodge of France founded
c. 1760  Martines de Pasqually founds the Order of the Elect Cohens at Bordeaux
1764  Frederick Wilhelm II initiated into Strict Observance
1767  Bernhard Joseph Schleiss von Lowenfeld of Sulzbach reorganizes the Gold and Rosy Cross, strongly influenced by the writings of Knorr von Rosenroth and van Helmont
1768  Saint-Martin initiated into the Elect Cohens
1770  Goethe writes to Langer discussing the Emerald Table
c. 1770  Golden and Rosy Cross well established throughout Europe by this time
1771  Grand Lodge of France reunited by Grand Duke of Luxembourg
1772  Grand Lodge of France reconstituted as Grand Orient of France. Pasqually goes to Santo Domingo, West Indies, turning over the Elect Cohens to Willermoz
1774  Death of Martines de Pasqually at Port-au-Prince, Haiti
1775  American Revolution begins, Weishaupt becomes a professor of natural and cannon law at Ingolstadt
1776  Foundation of the Bavarian Illuinati as the Order of Perfectibilists. Death of Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund
1777  Weishaupt initiated into a Strict Observance Lodge, Theodore of Good Council, at Munich. Bernhard Joseph Schleiss von Lowenfeld again reorganizes the Gold and Rosy Cross
c. 1777  First apparition of Pasqually to Abbe Fournier
1780  Goethe initiated into a masonic lodge at Weimar
1781  Frederick Wilhelm II initiated into the Gold and Rosy Cross with the title Ormesus Magnus
1782  Goethe receives the Higher Templar Degrees of the Rite of Strict Observance
c. 1783  Goethe joins the Bavarian Illuminati. De facto end of the Strict Observance
1784  Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria issues a proclamation that the Illuminati disband
1785  Weishaupt fired from Ingolstadt. He goes to live with Jakob Lanz in Regensberg. Cagliostro meets Saint-Germain, who initiates him. Saint-Germain is one of the French delegates to the "great Masonic convention" at Paris
1789  French Revolution begins
1792  Property of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Hospitallers) confiscated in France
1794  James Monroe, American Minister in Paris, proposes an alliance with the Knights of Malta
1795  Goethe writes The Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily, a fairy tale rife with Hermetic and alchemical symbolism
1798  Through the treason of the sixty-ninth Grand Master of the Knights of Malta, Napoleon arrives in Malta and catches the populace unaware. He conquers Malta and expels the Knights
1801  Francis Barrett publishes The Magus in London, containing much material from Agrippa's De Occulta Philosophia. Lands of the Teutonic Knights west of the Rhine absorbed by the French government
1803  Death of Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin
1809  Teutonic Knights suppressed by the French government. Birth of Albert Pike
1810  Birth of Eliphas Levi at Paris
1815  Birth of Adrien Peladan pere (Louis Adrien Peladan)
1840  Albert Pike joins the Odd Fellows
1842  Bulwer-Lytton publishes Zanoni: A Rosicrucian Novel
1844  Birth of Adrien Peladan fils at Nimes
1848  Birth of William Wynn Westcott at Leamington Spa, Warwickshire
c. 1850  Viscount Louis-Charles-Edouard de Lapasse, pupil of Prince Balbiani of Palermo (who had been a pupil of Cagliostro), is Chief of the Order of the Rose Cross in Toulouse
1854  Eliphas Lévi visits Bulwer-Lytton in England. They conceive the idea of writing a treatise on magic
1855  Eliphas Lévi's Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie published
1857  Walter Spencer initiated into the Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia by Anthony Oneil Haye
1858  Fraternitas Rosae Crucis founded by Paschal Beverly Randolph. Adrien Peladan fils becomes a member of the Order of the Rose Cross in Toulouse. Birth of Josephin Peladan at Lyon
1859  Pike elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction, an office he holds until his death
1861  Eliphas Lévi's Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie published. First Fraternitas Rosae Crucis lodge founded and then soon closes in San Francisco
1865  Albert Pike convicted of treason
1866  Robert Wentworth Little initiated into the Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia. Albert Pike pardoned by Andrew Johnson, who meets with him at the White House the next day
1867  Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia founded by Robert Wentworth Little in London under charter from the Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia. Andrew Johnson receives the 4th through 32nd degrees of Scottish Rite Masonry. Birth of Jean Delville at Louvain. Death of Viscount Louis-Charles-Edouard de Lapasse
c. 1867  (date unknown) Firmin Boissin becomes head of the Order of the Rose Cross in Toulouse
1871  Pike's Morals and Dogma published at Charleston, establishing the 33-degree form of modern Scottish Rite Freemasonry. Second Fraternitas Rosae Crucis lodge founded in Boston
1874  Fraternitas Rosae Crucis lodge founded in San Francisco
1875  Fraternitas Rosae Crucis moves its headquarters to Philadelphia. Death of Eliphas Levi
1878  Westcott begins studying the Kabbalah. Woodman becomes Supreme Magus of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, replacing R. W. Little. Blavatsky becomes a U.S. citizen. Birth of R. Swinburne Clymer
1880  Foundation of the Societatis Rosicrucianae in the United States (today the Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis) under charter from the Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia. Charles E. Meyer is Supreme Magus
1882  Josephin Peladan moves to Paris
1883  Birth of H. Spenser Lewis at Frenchtown, NJ
1884  Josephin Peladan adopts the Babylonian title "Sar." He publishes Le Vice Supreme containing Rosicrucian and occult themes. De Guaita reads it. De Guaita and Sar Peladan decide to rebuild the Rosicrucian Brotherhood. Birth of Emile Dantinne at Huy, Belgium. Birth of Paul Case at Fairport, NY
1885  Death of Adrien Peladan fils by accidental self-poisoning
1887  Westcott translates Sepher Yetzirah. Mathers translates Knorr von Rosenroth's Kabbala Denudata as The Kabbalah Unveiled
1888  Foundation of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn by Westcott at London. Foundation of the Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose-Croix by Stanislas de Guaita under charter from Josephin Peladan. Known members include Papus, Erik Satie and August Strindberg
1890  Westcott becomes Supreme Magus of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, replacing Woodman. Sar Peladan leaves the Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose-Croix and founds the Ordre de la Rose+Croix Catholique. Satie goes with him. Death of Adrien Peladan pere (Louis Adrien Peladan), outliving his eldest son by five years
1891  Sar Peladan publishes Manifesto of the Rose+Croix in Le Figaro. Death of William Woodman. Death of Albert Pike
1892  First Salon Rose+Croix. Sar Peladan Regent of Ordo Supremis Militaris Templi Hierosolymitani
1894  Jean Deville organizes Rosicrucian Salon d’Art Idealiste in Belgium
1895  Deville publishes Dialogue entre nous in which he describes his views on occultism and esoteric philosophy
c. 1895  Deville joins the Theosophical Society
1897  Last Salon Rose+Croix
1903  Max Heindel joins Los Angeles branch of the Theosophical Society. He serves as its vice president in 1904 and 1905
1904  Dantinne meets Sar Peladan in Brussels
1907  Birth of Israel Regardie at London
1908  Max Heindel founds a Rosicrucian study center in Columbus, OH
1909  Rosicrucian Fellowship founded by Max Heindel in Seattle. He publishes The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception at Chicago. H. Spenser Lewis initiated into a Rosicrucian society in Toulouse, perhaps the Order of the Rose Cross. George Winslow Plummer founds the Societas Rosicruciana in America under charter from an alleged Hungarian Rosicrucian society
1910  Deville becomes head of the Theosophical Society in Belgium
1911  Rosicrucian Fellowship moves its headquarters to Oceanside, CA
1912  Order of the Temple of the Rosy Cross founded by Theosphists Annie Besant, Marie Russak and J. I. Wedgwood. Isabel Cooper-Oakley publishes The Comte de St. Germain, the source of the Ascended Masters movement
c. 1914  Activities of the Order of the Temple of the Rosy Cross suspended due to the war
c. 1915  Ancient and Mystical Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC) founded by H. Spenser Lewis in New York
1918  Paul Case joins the Thoth-Hermes Lodge of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in Chicago. Order of the Temple of the Rosy Cross dissolved. Some time after this, Russak enters AMORC and collaborates with Lewis on the development of rituals. She transmits much of her occult knowledge to Lewis. Death of Josephin Peladan at Paris. Sar Hieronymus (Emile Dantinne) becomes Imperator of the Ordre de la Rose+Croix Catholique. Westcott moves to South Africa. Russia adopts the Gregorian calendar
1919  Death of Max Heindel at Oceanside, CA
1921  Reuss expels Crowley from the OTO. Rosicrucian Egyptian Oriental Museum founded by H. Spenser Lewis in San Jose, CA
1922  R. Swinburne Clymer becomes Supreme Grand Master of Fraternitas Rosae Crucis. Paul Case develops an extensive correspondence course after being expelled from the Golden Dawn by Mathers' widow, Moina. This is the core of the Builders of the Adytum that would come into being a few years later
1923  Paul Case starts the School of Ageless Wisdom, probably in Boston. Sar Hieronymus reorganizes the Belgian Rosicrucians. The Ordo Aureæ & Rosæ Crucis, the outer order, consists of the Ordre de la Rose+Croix Universitaire for college graduates and the Ordre de la Rose+Croix Universelle for all others. The inner order, to which members of either outer order can advance, is the Ordre de la Rose+Croix Interieure. Death of William Wynn Westcott at Durban
c. 1925  Paul Case moves to Los Angeles and founds the Builders of the Adytum
1927  AMORC moves to San Jose, CA. Ordre Hermetiste Tetramegiste et Mystique (note that Hermes is now "four times great" instead of merely "thrice great") founded by Sar Hieronymus at Brussels
1928  Israel Regardie becomes Aleister Crowley's secretary
1931  H. Spenser Lewis in Italy. Mussolini welcomes him as "a friend of the family"
1932  Sar Hieronymus begins correspondence with H. Spenser Lewis and Victor Blanchard
1934  Israel Regardie joins the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Societatis Rosicrucianae in the United States changes its name to the Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis. Sar Hieronymus founds FUDOSI (Federation Universelle Des Ordres et Societes Initiatiques, the Universal Federation of Initiatory Orders and Societies), consisting primarily of his Belgian groups and AMORC. Its three Imperators are Sar Hieronymus (Dantinne), Sar Alden (H. Spenser Lewis) and Sar Yesir (Victor Blanchard). They claim that all non-member groups are "false prophets"
1937  Regardie returns to the U.S. He publishes The Golden Dawn, containing virtually all of the Golden Dawn teachings. He is criticized as a traitor and an oath-breatker, but claims he did it in order to ensure the knowledge is preserved. H. Spenser Lewis in Italy. Mussolini gives speech promising a radiant future for AMORC
1939  Death of H. Spenser Lewis. His son, Ralph Lewis, becomes one of the three Imperators of FUDOSI. FUDOFSI (Federation Universelle des Ordres Sociétés et Fraternités des Initiés, the Federation of Orders and Fraternities of Initiates) formed in reaction to FUDOSI, primarily by R. Swinburne Clymer and Constant Chevillon
1944  Constant Chevillon dies, shot by the Gestapo. De-facto end of FUDOFSI
1945  Hartlib's letters, lost since 1667, discovered in London
1951  FUDOSI dissolved
1953  Death of Jean Deville at Brussels
1954  Death of Paul Case while vacationing in Mexico
1966  New buildings constructed for Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum. Death of R. Swinburne Clymer
1968  Sirhan Sirhan joins AMORC about a month before the Robert Kennedy assassination
1969  Death of Emile Dantinne at Huy
1981  Regardie moves to Sedona, AZ
1985  Death of Israel Regardie at Sedona, AZ
1987  Death of Ralph Lewis at San Jose, CA. Gary L. Stewart becomes Imperator of AMORC
1990  Gary L. Stewart expelled from AMORC after discovery of his transfer of $3.5 million to Andorra. He founds Confraternity of the Rose Cross, claiming he holds the true lineage of H. Spenser Lewis, and that AMORC doesn't
1993  AMORC drops its suit against Gary L. Stewart. Thomas Ernst decodes Volume 3 of Trithemius's Steganographia
1996  Jim Reeds independently decodes Volume 3 of Trithemius's Steganographia



NOTES ON SOURCES

This Hermetic Timeline has been compiled, or, perhaps, gleaned is a better word, from hundreds of sources, some very reliable, some less so, over the past twenty years. A handful of them are listed below.

It can be readily seen that not all sources agree, for example in multiple dates for the same event, such as the death of Edward Kelley.

Additionally, my own stance, perspective and standards have changed over those twenty years (hopefully towards the more stringent). Although the Timeline has been extensively edited before publication, these changes are not all necessarily reflected in it.

All of the sources listed at the bottom of my quiz page, both on-line and off-.
Storia dell'Accademia Platonica di Firenze by Arnaldo della Torre
Tycho Brahe by J. L. E. Dreyer
Rudolf II And His World by R. J. W. Evans
John Dee, The World of an Elizabethan Magus by Peter French
The Galileo Project
John Colet and Marsilio Ficino by Sears Jayne
Eight Philosophers of the Italian Renaissance by P. O. Kristeller
Friar, Reformer and Renaissance Scholar by Francis Martin
Byzantine Scholars in Renaissance Italy by John Monfasani
The Lord Of Uraniborg by Victor Thoren
Spiritual and Demonic Magic by D. P. Walker
The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age by Frances Yates

Less Reliable (but still convincing, in my opinon) Sources

The Catholic Encyclopedia
Wikipedia
A Jewish Princedom In Medieval France by Arthur Zuckerman
The Templars And The Grail by Karen Ralls
The Rosicrucians: The History, Mythology, and Rituals of an Esoteric Order by Christopher McIntosh

A Source so Unreliable that I have attempted to remove all uncorroborated references in it:

The Holy Blood And The Holy Grail by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln

A Source so Laughable that it is not worth considering:

The Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown

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